# ScalabilityΒΆ

The solution and estimation of finite-horizon discrete choice dynamic programming model appears straightforward. However, it entails a considerable computational burden due to the well known curse of dimensionality (Bellman and Dreyfus, 1962). The figure below illustrates how the total number of states increases exponentially with each period using the first parametrization of Keane and Wolpin (1994).

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During an estimation, thousands of different candidate parameterizations of the model are appraised with respect to the sample likelihood. Each time we need to evaluate the four-dimensional integral of \(E\max\) at a total of 163,410 states. Thus, in addition to Python, we also maintain a scalar and parallel Fortran implementation. We parallelize the workload using the master-slave paradigm. We assign each slave a subset of states to evaluate the \(E\max\) and a subset of agents to simulate their choice probabilities. Below, we show the total computation time required for 1,000 evaluations of the criterion function as we increase the number of slave processors to ten. Judging against the linear benchmark, the code scales well over this range.

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Adding even more processors, however, does not lead to any further improvements, it even increases the computational time. The main reason is the time spend on the synchronization of \(E\max\) across all processes each period. Even though each slave is only working on a subset of states each period, they need to access all previous \(E\max\) results during the backward induction procedure.